Six Different Types of Soils in India
Soil is our prime natural and economic resource. Soils in India differ in composition and structure.
1. Alluvial Soils:
These are formed by the deposition of sediments by rivers. They are rich in humus and very fertile. They are found in Great Northern plain, lower valleys of Narmada and Tapti and Northern Gujarat. These soils are renewed every year.
2. Black Soils:
These soils are made up of volcanic rocks and lava-flow. It is concentrated over Deccan Lava Tract which includes parts of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It consists of Lime, Iron, Magnesium and also Potash but lacks in Phosphorus, Nitrogen and Organic matter.
3. Red Soils:
These are derived from weathering of ancient metamorphic rocks of Deccan Plateau. Its redness is due to iron composition. When iron content is lower it is yellow or brown. They cover almost the whole of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and parts of Orissa.
4. Laterite Soils:
These soils are formed due to intense leaching and are well developed on the summits of hills and uplands. They are commonly found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
5. Mountain Soils:
These soils are formed as a result of the accumulation of organic matter derived from forest growth. They are found in Himalayan region and vary in different regions according to altitude. Tea is grown in those areas which receive sufficient rainfall.
6. Desert Soils:
In the desert regions of Rajasthan, soils are not well developed. As evaporation is in excess of rainfall, the soil has a high salt content and saline layer forms a hard crust. These soils are generally sandy and deficient in organic matter.